• We recommend that HIV-positive adults that require vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, or polio be given the Td/IPV vaccine in accordance with general indications, and regardless of CD4 cell count, ART use, and viral load
  • We recommend that individuals who are either unvaccinated or have an uncertain vaccination history receive 3 vaccine doses at monthly interval (or at 0, 1-2, and 6-12 months) followed by 2 reinforcing doses after 5 and 10 years, whereas partially vaccinated individuals should complete the 5-dose vaccine course  
  • We recommend that fully vaccinated individuals (5 doses) receive a booster dose every 10 years if at risk of exposure, typically through travel
  • We recommend that individuals who may be occupationally exposed to poliovirus (e.g. laboratory workers) be tested for specific antibodies 3 months after vaccination to confirm protective immunity and revaccinated if required
  • We recommend that HIV-positive patients who are exposed to OPV or wild-type polio are considered for post-exposure prophylaxis with HNIG, based on considerations of vaccination history, CD4 cell counts, viral load, ART status, and poliovirus serology