• We recommend that HIV-positive adults that require vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, or polio be given the parenteral Td/IPV vaccine in accordance with general indications, and regardless of CD4 cell count, ART use, and viral load.
     
  • We recommend that individuals who are either unvaccinated or have an uncertain vaccination history receive 3 vaccine doses at 1 month interval, followed by 2 booster doses after 5 and 10 years; partially vaccinated individuals should complete the 5-dose vaccine course.
     
  • We recommend that fully vaccinated individuals (5 doses) receive a booster dose every 10 years if at risk of exposure, typically through travel.
     
  • We recommend that individuals who may be occupationally exposed to diphtheria (e.g. laboratory workers) be tested for diphtheria antibodies 3 months after vaccination to confirm protective immunity, and be revaccinated if required.
     
  • We recommend that following a credible or confirmed exposure to diphtheria, HIV-positive contacts receive post-exposure prophylaxis with antibiotic therapy and vaccination in accordance with standard recommendations.